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February 14, 2012 by · Comments Off
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Kearifan Lokal Komunitas Petani dan Nelayan yang Tercermin di balik Bahasa dan Budaya Jawa Masyarakat Kebumen: Sebuah Kajian Etnolinguistik

February 14, 2012 by · Comment
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ABSTRACT

 

H.D. Edi Subroto, Inyo Yos Fernandez, Wakit Abdullah, M.V. Sri Hartini, 2011, “Kearifan Lokal Komunitas Petani dan Nelayan yang Tercermin di balik Bahasa dan Budaya Jawa Masyarakat Kebumen: Sebuah Kajian Etnolinguistik”, Post Graduate Sebelas Maret University Surakarta.

This study aims to 1) Describe the preliminary data of language and culture aspect of farming and fishing community in the western part of Central Java at the lowlands and highlands. It is assumed that the language and culture elements in kebumen and Banyumas still original as a conservative Java Banyumas language. In adapting to its environment, through their collective intelligence transforms the livelihood from being farmers to fishermen, especially farmers who accupythe areas along the southern sea coast, after spreading their early lives from highland to lowland. 2) Describe the preliminary data categories and linguistic expression found in local knowledge system (cognition system) in the field of farmers and fishermen that contain local wisdom of indigenous Javanese farmers and fishermen which reflects their mindset, world view. 3) Describe the preliminary data about the sosiocultural factors ttat impact on community resistance and innovation of Java language and culture in the form of folklore(both verbal behavior as in the expression of the Java language and nonverbal behavior as in a ritual ceremony). 4) Inventorying and documenting preliminary data of folklore concerning language and culture of farmers and fishermen which aims to preserve it. It can prevent it from becoming extinct. It is assumed that folklore represent the knowledge of Javanese culture that reflects individual cognitive mind and then become collective mind of the community.

Cultural discourse in the field of language in the farmers and fishermen communities can the collected through data collection activities at the research location Watu Agung (Banyumas) and in Petanahan, Klirong and surrounding areas (Kebumen) with the participation, observation, based on ethnographic methods. This research is qualitative descriptive and exploratory, base on ethnolinguistics approach examines the relation of language and culture in an integrated way. Without ignoring both the dimension of micro linguistics study and macro linguistics study to assess the knowledge system of local communities without compromising the structure of language study. As a field study, data is obtained by in depth interviewing the informants as stated in ethnographic methods. The farmers and fishermen linguistics, data is analyzed by using taxonomic analysis, componential analysis, and domain analysis related to rhe cultural themes.

The results of this study include (1) sosio cultural aspect of the Java language and culture can the observed in the life of banyumas farmers due to the migration from the highlands (Watu Agung, Tambak, Banyumas) to the lowlends (south coast Kebumen). (2) Mindset, way of life and world view can be seen from their culture activities, both verbal and nonverbal. (3) Sosial and cultural factors of farmers and fishemen is their awareness of their existence as subsistence farmers (irreplaceable). (4) Their perception of the folklore associated with the Java language and the culture of farmers and fishermen are positive. This was reflected in their care and maintenance of the folklore associated with their belief in things that are mystical in nature around him.

INFLEKSI DAN DERIVASI

February 5, 2012 by · Comment
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Sampai dewasa ini morfologi bahasa Indonesia (BI) masih didominasi oleh model strukturalisme tradisional sebagaimana ditunjukkan oleh buku Ramlan (1987) yang berjudul “Ilmu Bahasa Indonesia: Morfologi”, buku “Tata Bahasa Baku Bahasa Indonesia” (1993) oleh Hasan Alwi dkk.; buku Harimurti Kridalaksana (1996) yang berjudul “Pembentukan Kata dalam Bahasa Indonesia”. Ketiga buku itu banyak dipakai di kalangan mahasiswa Strata 1 (S-1) di Indonesia yang mempelajari linguistik BI maupun bahasa-bahasa daerah  sehingga pengaruhnya cukup besar. Namun demikian, sekalipun di sana-sini ada menyinggung pembentukan suatu jenis kata dari jenis kata lain, ketiga buku itu belum menyinggung secara jelas  ihwal pembentukan kata BI dari sudut pandang morfologi derivasional dan infleksional, suatu pendekatan yang jauh lebih maju dalam linguistik mutakhir.

Unduh di bawah ini:

INFLEKSI DAN DERIVASI: Kemungkinan Penerapannya dalam Bahasa Indonesia

RESTRUCTURING OF INDONESIAN MORPHOLOGY WITH THE NEW PERSPECTIVE (DERIVATIONAL AND INFLECTIONAL) AFFIXATION PROCESS

February 5, 2012 by · Comment
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(Hasil penelitian hibah fundamental 2011 Dikti; oleh Wakit Abdullah, D. Edi Subroto, Mulyanto)

 

ABSTRACT

The study focused on derivational and inflectional morphology of affixation process. These research data are the form of sentences which containing standard Indonesian affixation forms. Data can be obtained on the mass media (print and electronic), the use of everyday spoken language by speakers of Indonesian society, as well as data generated by researchers as Indonesian speaker with specific validation policies for language study. The data was collected with observed and record method, and in-depth interviews. The observe method and record method made ​​of the data written and oral sources, whereas in-depth interviews conducted to reexamine the truth / validity of data obtained mainly on the data generated. In-depth interviews also accompanied observing and recording.

Derivational formation is the formation of which produces different kinds of new words from their base or establishment that produces different lexical identity. Establishment of the mean also produce a different lexical meaning of essentially the referents (referred to) is also different. In addition there is also a formation which produces the same kind of words with essentially (for example: lurah vs. kelurahan). In this case also includes the establishment of derivational because the lexical meanings are different and are referred to also differ. The word “lurah” refers to ‘a person’, while “kelurahan” refers to ‘the system / do not refer to person’. The formation of the latter (lurah vs kelurahan) does not change the type of word, but change the lexical identity. Through the characteristics mentioned above, the affixation in the Indonesian language known to the formation of a noun and a verb formation, whereas formation of a class of words other than nouns and verbs are not found.

Derivational formation of a noun derived from a few basic categories, namely from verbs (VI and V II), noun-other, adjectives, numbers, and and from adverbs. Derivational formation of V I into nouns included in various categories of nouns, namely the peng-D category, the peng-D-an category, the D-an category, the pe-D category, the ke-D-an category, and the per-D-an category. Derivational formation of V II into nouns included in various categories of nouns, namely the peng-D category, the peng-D-an category, the D-an category,  the pe-/per-D category, the pe-/per-D-an category, dan the ke-D-an category. Formation of a noun from other nouns contained in the various categories, namely the ke-D-an category, the per-/pe-D-an category, the D-wan/-wati category, the D-isme category, the D-isasi category, and the D-an category.

Derivational formation of adjective into nouns included in various categories of nouns, namely the ke-D-an category, the D-an category, the peng-D category, the D-isasi category, the D-isme category, the ke-D category, and the pe-D category. Derivational formation of word numbers into nouns included in various categories of nouns, namely the D-an category, kategori ke-D-an category, and the per-D-an category. Derivational formation of adverbs into nouns included in various categories of nouns, namely the ke-D-an category and the ke-D category. Formation of into noun can also involve the suffix {-nya} from different basic categories.

Derivational formation of into verbs are also derived from several basic categories, namely from the base of another verb (VI and V II), nouns, adjectives, numbers, and adverbs. Formation of into verbs of V I contained in the various categories, namely the D–i category, the D–kan category, the ke-D-an category, and the ber-D category. Formation of into verbs of V II contained in the various categories, namely the D–i category, the D–kan category, and the ke-D-an category.

Derivational formation of nouns into verbs contained in the various categories, namely the zero-D category, the D-kan category, the D-i category, the ber-D category, the meng-D category, the per-D category, the per-D-kan category, and the ber-D-kan category. Derivational formation of adjectives into verbs contained in the various categories, namely the D-i category, the D-kan category, the per-D category, the per-D-kan category, the per-D-i category, the meng-D category, the ber-D category, the ber-D-an category, and the ke-D-an category. Derivational formation of numbers into verbs contained in the various categories, namely the D-kan category, the per-D-kan category, the per-D category, the meng-D category, and the ber-D category. Derivational formation of adverbs into verbs contained in the various categories, namely the D-i category and the D-kan category.

Inflectional formation is a formation which does not generate new leksem or establishment that produces the forms of different words from the same leksem. The establishment of such a nature could have predicted based on certain conditions. Through affixation, inflectional formation in the Indonesian language only occur within the scope of the verb. The inflectional establishment of a V I basic found in verb of type TEMBAK, TEMBAKI, TEMBAKKAN, and AMBILKAN. The inflectional establishment of a V II basic included in the ber-D category, the D-i category, the D-kan ‘locative’ category, and the D-kan ‘causative’ category. Inflection affixes whose occurrence can be predicted inherent in the category of verbs is to affix {meng-, di-, ku-, kau-, dia-}.

PENGANTAR STUDI SEMANTIK DAN PRAGMATIK

February 5, 2012 by · Comment
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(BUKU 1: PENGANTAR STUDI SEMANTIK)

 

Penulis                 : Edi Subroto

ISBN                      : 978-979-1533-28-7

Terbit pertama : bulan Oktober 2011

Oleh                      : Cakrawala Media, Surakarta

 

Buku ini terdiri atas dua bagian/buku. Bagian/buku satu terbit dengan judul Pengantar Studi Semantik  dan buku kedua berjudul Pengantar Studi Pragmatik. Terbitnya buku ini diharapkan dapat memberi dasar yang kokoh dan memadai dalam mendalami studi semantik maupun pragmatik.

 

Kajian semantik dan pragmatik sama-sama mengkaji “arti”, namun dengan sudut pandang yang berbeda. Semantik mengkaji arti bahasa (arti lingual) yang bersifat bebas konteks atau tidak terikat konteks, sedangkan pragmatik mengkaji arti (maksud tuturan) yang terikat konteks. Misalnya seseorang berkata “saya lapar”. Tuturan itu menyatakan bahwa penutur (siapa pun orangnya) mengungkapkan rasa lapar. Jadi, sama sekali tidak terikat konteks. Sebaliknya, pragmatik mengkaji maksud tuturan yang bersifat terikat konteks. Satuan tuturan yang dikaji pragmatik disebut “tuturan, ujaran” (utterance).

 

 

Studi Semantik, Semiotik, dan Segitiga Semantik

Sebagaimana telah dikenal secara luas bahwa semantik adalah salah satu bidang kajian atau cabang linguistik yang mengkaji arti bahasa atau arti linguistik (lingual meaning atau linguistic meaning) secara ilmiah. Atau sebagaimana dinyatakan oleh Hurford dan Hearsly (1984) bahwa semantik mengkaji arti di dalam bahasa. Arti di dalam bahasa itu disebut arti bahasa atau arti lingual. Arti bahasa itu merupakan objek kajian semantik.

Arti bahasa pada dasarnya adalah bentuk pengetahuan yang tersimpan di dalam dan terstruktur di dalam bahasa, dikuasai secara lebih kurang sama oleh para pengguna bahasa, serta digunakan dalam komunikasi secara umum dan wajar.

Arti itu tersimpan di dalam bahasa maksudnya adalah bahwa bahasa sebagai sistem tanda lingual (tanda bahasa) merupakan paduan dari aspek bentuk (formal aspect ofthe sign) dan aspek arti (semantic aspect of the sign). Berdasarkan rumusan itu, untuk menjadi bahasa kita tidak hanya menerima rentetan bunyi bahasa yang kosong melompong (tanpa sesuatu yang terkandung di dalamnya) atau rentetan huruf tanpa sesuatu yang dapat ditangkap di dalamnya. Demikian pula sebaliknya, untuk menjadi bahasa suatu idea atau gagasan atau keinginan itu perlu dibungkus secara bersistem dakam wujud rangkaian bunyi bahasa. Misalnya, rangkaian bunyi bahasa [kursi] di dalamnya terkandung bentuk pengetahuan ‘perabot rumah tangga, ada tenpat duduknya, ada sandarannya, ada kakinya, dipakai untuk duduk’. Atas dasar itu, bahasa bahasa yang dituliskan dapat dipakai untuk menyimpan ilmu pengetahuan, gagasan/ide, pesan, wasiat, kumpulan pendapat atau ide dan sebangsanya dan dengan demikian dapat diwariskan kepada generasi berikutnya. Itulah letak pentingnya basa tulis atau bahasa yang dituliskan.

Arti itu terstruktur di dalam bahasa maksudnya arti itu juga terwujud dalam suatu struktur atau konstruksi atau bangunan morfologis maupun sintaksis suatu bahasa.  Setiap bangunan atau konstruksi morfologis atau sintaksis tertentu selalu menstrukturkan arti tertentu yang disebut arti gramatikal atau arti struktural (berbaju berarti ‘memakai/ mengenakan baju’, baju itu dicuci berarti ‘baju (sebagai yang dikenai tindakan) itu dikenai tindakan dicuci’). Arti yang demikian itu (yang terkandung dalam sebuah kata) ataupun yang terstruktur dalam bangunan morfologis maupun sintaksis ditangkap/dipahami lebih kurang sama oleh sesama pemakai bahasa itu. Arti kata-kata dalam sebuah bahasa dan arti struktur itu merupakan aspek kemampuan (competence atau la langue) sebuah bahasa. Maksudnya, arti kata-kata (atau leksem) dan arti struktur itu dikuasai secara lebih kurang sama  dan dikuasai secara tak disadari oleh semua pendukung bahasa itu.

Arti bahasa itu merupakan bentuk pengetahuan yang ditangkap atau dipahami di dalam otak pengguna bahasa dan dengan bentuk pengetahuan itu, pemakai bahasa menggunakan bahasa secara berhasil untuk komunikasi. Demikianlah, misalnya, benda-benda yang disebut “kursi” dalam masyarakat Indonesia sangat beragam (bahannya, jumlah kakinya, bentuk tentang “kursi” sehingga mampu menggunakannya secara berhasil dalam komunikasi.

Di muka telah disinggung bahwa bahasa itu pada dasarnya sistem tanda yang bersifat lingual. Di samping tanda yang bersifat lingual juga terdapat tanda (secara umum) yang bersifat non-lingual. Setiap tanda (sign)  selalu merupakan paduan yang tak terpisahkan antara aspek bentuk (penanda) dan aspek arti (petanda). Aspek bentuk itu di dalam BI disebut signifier  dan aspek arti disebut signified. Misalnya, tanda yang berwujud lampu lalu-lintas. Nyala lampu berwarna merah adalah aspek bentuk. Aspek artinya ‘semua kendaraan yang datang dari arah depan lampu harus berhenti’. Sejumlah wanita mengenakan jilbab adalah aspek bentuk, sedangkan aspek artinya ‘mereka adalah wanita yang muslimah’. Jadi, aspek bentuk adalah semua yang teramati, dapat dipegang atau dirasakan yang bersifat lahiriah. Hubungan antara aspek bentuk dan aspek arti itu bersifat konvensi.

Berdasarkan rumusan tersebut dapat dipahami manakala ada pendapat bahwa studi semantik merupakan bagian dari studi semiotik. Dinyatakan oleh Ferdinand de Saussure bahwa studi mengenai arti lingual adalah bagian dari studi umum penggunaan sistem tanda yang disebut semiotik (semiotics) (lihat Saeed, 2000:5). Semiotik mengkaji sistem penciptaan dan pengidentifikasin tanda beserta liku-likunya. Tanda itu ada yang bersifat lingual ada yang bersifat non-lingual.

Selengkapnya……………………………… baca: Edi Subroto. 2011. Pengantar Studi Semantik dan Pragmatik (Buku 1. Pengantar Studi Semantik). Surakarta: Cakrawala Media.

Pemakaian Bahasa Indonesia yang Baik dan Benar dalam Karya Ilmiah

April 22, 2009 by · Comment
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PEMAKAIAN BAHASA INDONESIA YANG BAIK DAN BENAR DALAM KARYA ILMIAH (TESIS DAN DISERTASI) UNTUK MAHASISWA S-2 DAN S-3 PRODI ILMU HUKUM.

Disampaikan dalam Ceramah Pemakaian Bahasa Indonesia yang Baik dan Benar dalam Karya Ilmiah untuk Forum Mahasiswa S-2 & S-3 Prodi Ilmu Hukum UNS, 20 Maret 2009

Selengkapnya dapat diunduh ceramah1

ADVERSATIVE-PASSIVE VERBS IN STANDARD JAVANESE

April 13, 2009 by · Comment
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Adversative-passive verbs in standard Javanese

D. Edi Subroto

1.    It is no exaggeration to say that Prof. E. M. Uhlenbeck is one of the most influential scholars to study the Javanese language in this century. His work has encouraged me and others to explore the Javanese language system deeply and accurately. Many of Uhlen­beck’s studies deal with Javanese morphology, especially the verb system. Some of them have been collected in his Studies in Javanese morphology (1978). In the article “Verb structure in Javanese” (1978: 117-126), Uhlenbeck described, among other things, the structure of the Javanese verb class I.

Concerning the verbs ke-/k-R, ke-/k-R-an-called “adversative-passive verbs”-Uhlenbeck stated that ke-R and ke-R-an indicate the incidental, accidental, non-intentional attainment of a result or oc­curence (1978: 120). However, Uhlenbeck did not analyse the transi­tivity of the verbs-how many N’s or NP’s should accompany the verbs-, and the semantic relation between the N’s or NP’s and the verbs. It can be concluded that ke-R and ke-R-an in standard Javanese have not yet been given enough attention and have not yet been de­scribed accurately, unlike the di-R verbs (Dardjowidjojo 1983: 113).

The aim of this article is to give a more detailed description. I will describe not only the semantic aspects of the verbs, but also the nature of their semantic relationships with the N’s or NP’s accom­panying them in sentences.

2.    The theoretical approach adopted for this article is structuralism, especially structuralism which admits the centrality of the word not only in morphology, but also in language as a whole (cf. Uhlenbeck 1978; Edi Subroto 1985). This means that morphology is primarily concerned with the systematic extension of the vocabulary of a cer­tain language. It implies that there is a recipe or pattern by wick new words are formed from a basis and by a certain synchronic process. So, it is natural that the terms “word” and “synchronic process” will figure in a morphological description. Certain words or certain basic morphemes (D) are and can be used as the basis for the formation of new words (grammatically or categorially) which stand to the former in certain constant form-meaning relationships (Uhlenbeck 1978: 4).

In all languages, people regularly form new words according to cer­tain recipes or patterns, such words being accepted and understood without difficulty. Those recipes or patterns which can be continu­ously extended to form new words are called productive processes (Uhlenbeck 1978: 4; Bauer 1983: 63). As compared to the productive process, the non-productive process can only be applied incidentally. The number of words which can be formed by a non-productive pro­cess is limited, so they should be listed separately in any description. Read more

ENDANGERED KRAMA AND KRAMA INGGIL VARIETIES

March 18, 2009 by · Comment
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ENDANGERED KRAMA AND KRAMA INGGIL VARIETIES

OF THE JAVANESE LANGUAGE[1]

By:

D. Edi Subroto, Maryono Dwirahardjo, Budhi Setiawan[2]

ABSTRACT

Penelitian ini membuktikan temuan penelitian sementara sebelumnya dan beberapa kecurigaan masyarakat Jawa sebelumnya bahwa Generasi Muda Jawa (GMJ) sudah tidak mampu berbahasa Jawa ragam Krama dan Krama Inggil dengan benar dan tepat. Hal itu terbukti dari tes tertulis dan juga dari wawacara mendalam. Tes tertulis menunjukkan bahwa pemahaman GMJ terhadap pasangan kosa kata Ngoko, Krama, dan Krama Inggil sangat kurang. Demikian pula kemampuan GMJ untuk meng-gunakan ragam Krama dan Krama Inggil dengan benar dan tepat juga tergolong kurang. Beberapa faktor penyebab terjadinya keadaan itu juga ditemukan dalam penelitian ini.

Kata-kata kunci: ragam bahasa (speech levels), Ngoko, Krama,Krama

Inggil. posisi tinggi, posisi rendah, kematian bahasa,

terancam (endangered)

INTRODUCTION

This article reveals findings in the first year of the three-year research (2007-2009), entitled “Model for Main-taining and Developing the Competen-ce of the Javanese Young Generation in Using Javanese Krama and Krama Inggil in Surakarta and its Surrounding Areas”, and funded by Hibah Pasca. The

first-year research aims at reconfir-ming the previous findings about the inability of the Javanese Young Gene-ration (JYG) in understanding Java-nese Ngoko words and their Krama/ Madya, and Krama Inggil correspon-dences, and also their inability in using the Javanese speech levels correctly and appropriately.

As has been generally known, Javanese is one of the biggest regional languages in Indonesia. It has a big number of native speakers, more or less 70 million, and has speech levels or unggah ungguh basa, namely, Ngoko (Ng), Krama (Kr) and Krama Inggil (Kr I). Ng is the lowest level and is used when addressing someone of the same status, of the same age or of lower status, such as close friends, younger persons, and subordinates. Kr is the middle level and is used when addres-sing a second person who is fairly respected, for example a new acquain-tance and respected younger persons. Kr I is the highest level and is used when addressing a second person or talking about a third person who is highly res-pected, such as teachers, parents, grand-fathers, grandmothers, ustadz, etc.

The main linguistic markers of the speech levels (Ng, Kr, and Kr I) are (1) Ng words and their Kr and Kr I correspondences (e.g. mangan, nedha, dhahar, ‘to eat’), (2) affixes marking Ng and Kr or Kr I (di-/dipun- ‘passive markers’, -e/-ne and -ipun/-nipun ‘possessive markers’), and (3) forms of address including honorific prefixes (kowe/ sampeyan/ panjenengan ‘you’), aku/ kula/ dalem ‘I’, dhe-weke/ piyambakipun /panjenenganipun ‘he/ she’. Those linguistic markers identify the Ng, Kr, and Kr I varieties. The term ‘language’ in this article refers to social varieties (sociolects). Thus, the English sentence ‘Have you had lunch/dinner ?’, can be expressed in three different varieties in Javanese, as follows:

1. Kowe apa wis mangan? (Ng variety)

2. Sampeyan napa pun nedha ?, and

(Kr variety)

3.Panjenengan punapa sampun dhahar?

( Kr I variety)

Javanese varieties, particularly the new Javanese, in contrast with Old and Middle Javanese, were widely known by Javanese grammarians. Ki Padmasoesastro (1899) classified Java-nese speech levels into :

1) basa ngoko,

2) basa krama,

3) basa madya,

4) basa krama ndesa,

5) basa krama inggil,

6) basa kedhaton, dan

7) basa kasar.

Those classifications were faith-fully followed by the later Javanese grammarians, such as Mas Ngabehi Dwidjasewaya, 1922; Antunsoehono, 1932; Poerwadarminto, 1953; and Prawiroatmodjo, 1955.

Basa madya is basically similar to Krama, and therefore, they belong to the same variety. Basa krama ndesa is a rural variety which is commonly used by villagers whose competence in krama is limited, for example:

Jeng teng pundi yu?” ‘Where are you going, (elder) sister?’. Basa Kedha-ton is only used in the palace circle by the king’s relatives and the court servants in the Karaton ‘palace’, and now it is rarely used. Basa Kasar (rough variety) is used to express anger. Javanese linguists nowadays simplify the classification into three speech levels, namely, Ngoko, Krama, and Krama Inggil (Poedjasoedarmo, 1979, Sudaryanto, 1989, Kaswanti Purwo, 1991). This article refers to this classification.

The first-year research was stimulated by the previous findings by Edi Subroto (1987), Sujono and Sisyono (1989), and Rustiati (2006). They all agree that the JYG’s knowledge of Javanese Ngoko words and their Krama and Krama Inggil correspondences is very poor, for example mangan, nedha, dhahar, ‘to eat’ and so is their compe-tence in using Javanese speech levels. The following data show their inability in using Javanese speech levels:

(1) Mbah kula aturi dhahar, kula kala wau sampun dhahar. ‘Grandpa, please have a meal, I have just eaten mine’

(2) Pak Dhe mangke dalu kula badhe tindak Jakarta. Rencana badhe nitih sepur. Badhe nyare wonten Hotel Borobudur. ‘Uncle, I am going to Jakarta this evening. I plan to go there by train. I will stay at Borobu- dur Hotel’

(3) Kala wau dalu kula ugi mirsani bal-balan kok Pak. ‘Last night I also watched the football match, sir’

The data show that actually the JYG know Javanese Ng words and their Kr and Kr I correspondences, but they are not able to use them correctly and appropriately when using Kr and Kr I speech levels to address older persons. They are not able to use Kr and Kr I words in accordance with the Javanese socio-cultural context. Read more

Hello world!

February 25, 2009 by · 2 Comments
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Welcome to blognya staff dan dosen uns (universitas sebelas maret). This is your first post. Edit or delete it, then start blogging!